There are two mains issues when joining ceramics.
The first is that they are in general inherently stable materials. A function of their interatomic bonding, this is what makes ceramics strong and brittle, but also very difficult to bond to (using chemical means). Thankfully, the problems of chemical adhesion are relatively easy to overcome.
The second issue when joining ceramics (particularly to dissimilar materials such as metals) is that of thermal expansion mismatch. In general, ceramics have a lower co-efficient of thermal expansion (CTE) than metals. Thus on joining, residual stresses can build up in the ceramic – leading to premature failure.
The issues of CTE mismatch are generally difficult to overcome without careful regard to joint design.
Overcoming these issues of chemical compatibility and joint design are particular strengths of Ceramics Joining Limited.